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Apache Aurora

Scheduling Constraints

By default, Aurora will pick any random agent with sufficient resources in order to schedule a task. This scheduling choice can be further restricted with the help of constraints.

Mesos Attributes

Data centers are often organized with hierarchical failure domains. Common failure domains include hosts, racks, rows, and PDUs. If you have this information available, it is wise to tag the Mesos agent with them as attributes.

The Mesos agent --attributes command line argument can be used to mark agents with static key/value pairs, so called attributes (not to be confused with --resources, which are dynamic and accounted).

For example, consider the host cluster1-aaa-03-sr2 and its following attributes (given in key:value format): host:cluster1-aaa-03-sr2 and rack:aaa.

Aurora makes these attributes available for matching with scheduling constraints.

Limit Constraints

Limit constraints allow to control machine diversity using constraints. The below constraint ensures that no more than two instances of your job may run on a single host. Think of this as a “group by” limit.

Service(
  name = 'webservice',
  role = 'www-data',
  constraints = {
    'host': 'limit:2',
  }
  ...
)

Likewise, you can use constraints to control rack diversity, e.g. at most one task per rack:

constraints = {
  'rack': 'limit:1',
}

Use these constraints sparingly as they can dramatically reduce Tasks’ schedulability. Further details are available in the reference documentation on Scheduling Constraints.

Value Constraints

Value constraints can be used to express that a certain attribute with a certain value should be present on a Mesos agent. For example, the following job would only be scheduled on nodes that claim to have an SSD as their disk.

Service(
  name = 'webservice',
  role = 'www-data',
  constraints = {
    'disk': 'SSD',
  }
  ...
)

Further details are available in the reference documentation on Scheduling Constraints.

Running stateful services

Aurora is best suited to run stateless applications, but it also accommodates for stateful services like databases, or services that otherwise need to always run on the same machines.

Dedicated attribute

Most of the Mesos attributes arbitrary and available for custom use. There is one exception, though: the dedicated attribute. Aurora treats this specially, and only allows matching jobs to run on these machines, and will only schedule matching jobs on these machines.

Syntax

The dedicated attribute has semantic meaning. The format is $role(/.*)?. When a job is created, the scheduler requires that the $role component matches the role field in the job configuration, and will reject the job creation otherwise. The remainder of the attribute is free-form. We’ve developed the idiom of formatting this attribute as $role/$job, but do not enforce this. For example: a job devcluster/www-data/prod/hello with a dedicated constraint set as www-data/web.multi will have its tasks scheduled only on Mesos agents configured with: --attributes=dedicated:www-data/web.multi.

A wildcard (*) may be used for the role portion of the dedicated attribute, which will allow any owner to elect for a job to run on the host(s). For example: tasks from both devcluster/www-data/prod/hello and devcluster/vagrant/test/hello with a dedicated constraint formatted as */web.multi will be scheduled only on Mesos agents configured with --attributes=dedicated:*/web.multi. This may be useful when assembling a virtual cluster of machines sharing the same set of traits or requirements.

Example

Consider the following agent command line:

mesos-slave --attributes="dedicated:db_team/redis" ...

And this job configuration:

Service(
  name = 'redis',
  role = 'db_team',
  constraints = {
    'dedicated': 'db_team/redis'
  }
  ...
)

The job configuration is indicating that it should only be scheduled on agents with the attribute dedicated:db_team/redis. Additionally, Aurora will prevent any tasks that do not have that constraint from running on those agents.